Orkney’s stunning coastline has a rich variety of habitats - from the high red sandstone cliffs of Hoy to the sheltered beaches of Sanday, the gentle shoreline of Scapa Flow to the storm-battered, rugged coast of West Mainland.
These habitats include maritime heathland and salt marsh, which are home to many species of maritime plants. It also supports world renowned fauna and flora, offering prime locations to see rare seabirds, hunt for lucky cowrie shells (groatie buckies in Orcadian) or spot the Scottish primrose (Primula scotica).
Geological features include sea stacks, such as the Castle o’ Burrian, Westray or the world-famous Old Man of Hoy standing 140 metres high, which are popular with climbers. Chris Bonnington climbed the Old Man in 1966 and again in 2014. Geos, such as Sand Geo, Marwick Bay and Skipi Geo, Birsay, are narrow long slots carved along fault lines by the sea. And gloups or blowholes such as The Gloup in Deerness are spectacular in a storm as the sea cascades up like a fountain. Yesnaby in Sandwick is a dramatic place to view inlets, sea stacks, gloups and geos. In Stronsay you can see the natural arch called the Vat of Kirbister. There are fossils in the cliffs at Yesnaby too but to guarantee seeing those head for the Fossil and Heritage Centre in Burray. Natural flagstone, used for roofs, can be found in Westray. There is a permanent exhibition about flagstone at Westray Heritage Centre which also has a model geo. The tidal island of the Brough of Birsay can be visited at low tide when you can explore the rock pools as you cross the causeway and find crabs and anemones.
Manmade features on the coast include the extensive wartime lookouts and batteries around Scapa Flow, fishermen’s huts at Marwick Bay and nousts at Birsay where boats were hauled up into hollows above the storm beach. Remains of Iron Age brochs can be found near the coast including on Rousay, Hoy and the Broch of Gurness at Aikerness.
Family beaches for fun days out building sandcastles or taking a swim can be found across the islands, including at Scapa Beach, near Kirkwall, Dingieshowe Beach in Deerness and at Cata Sand with its spectacular dunes in Sanday.
Inside Nature and Wildlife
Orkney is a wonderful place to spot wildlife and is home to some very rare species of animals.More
The RSPB looks after 13 nature reserves across Orkney, so it’s clear the islands are a very important area for birds. Large numbers pass through in spring and autumn on migration, with a number of r...More
As well as the 'four seasons in one day' saying, many folk describe Orkney as having only two seasons a year! Long, bright days in the summer, and short, dark days in the winter. But there is a lot more to our weather than that...More
Wildflowers carpet the cliff tops, wetland, heaths and even roadside verges in Orkney with a colourful display from April to September. There are 500 native plants and 200 more that have been introduced, making Orkney a flower-lovers haven.More
Orkney's abundant sealife makes the islands a wildlife lover's paradise.More
Although it's often said that you can experience all four seasons in a single day in Orkney, there are still clear distinctions as the months pass by. From the appearance of lambs and cows in the fields during Spring and the long, hazy days of Summer, to the harvest of Autumn and the wild and invigorating Winter, Orkney has a season for every mood.More